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Robot revolution will put millions out of work and force governments to bring in human quotas, top lawyers warn

Below is a summary for the article : Robot revolution will put millions out of work and force governments to bring in human quotas, top lawyers warn by The Sun

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THE ROBOTIC revolution’s devastating effect on human employment will force governments to bring in human job quotas, experts have warned.

A report from The International Bar Association, a global organisation for lawyers, found that the technological revolution will destroy the workplace as we know it.

Pascale Lagesse, Co-Chair of the International Bar Association, which represents lawyers across the world, issued a chilling warning that artificial intelligence, robotics and automation would “Without doubt” bring about changes in society “In every sector and in every nation”.

He added: “This fourth industrial revolution will concurrently destroy and create jobs and paradoxically benefit and impair workers in ways that are not entirely clear or not yet imagined.”

This means that the law will have to change to cater for human workers’ rights and ensure low income families are supported.

We are already beginning to see how machines could nab labour intensive jobs.

A US company is planning to bring a fleet of robo-brickies, which promise to work “Harder and faster” than humans, to the UK. And machines are expected to replace 250,000 civil servants to save taxpayers billions by 2030.

The US government have even considered new insurance plans to help families who will have their income slashed in coming years.

The news follows comments from Astronomer Royal and top Cambridge prof Lord Martin Ree’s comments that machines will not only overthrow humanity within centuries, but that intelligent life might evolve into “Electronic entities”.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/3251819/robot-revolution-will-put-millions-out-of-work-and-force-governments-to-bring-in-human-quotas-top-lawyers-warn/
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Robot crime raises thorny legal issues that need addressing now

Below is a summary for the article : Robot crime raises thorny legal issues that need addressing now by Tech Republic

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For starters, Markou is curious how fault is determined when a robot does something considered illegal.

Before getting into the thorny issues of robot crime, Markou offers his thoughts as to why a system of laws is needed.

If an advanced autonomous machine commits a crime of its own accord, how should it be treated by the law? How would a lawyer go about demonstrating the “Guilty mind” of a nonhuman? Does evolving entail adapting to existing legal principles or writing new ones?

Markou believes that robots can commit crimes, but there is a caveat: “If a robot kills someone then it has committed a crime, but technically only half a crime, as it would be far harder to determine ‘guilty mind,'” explains Markou.

“How do we know the robot intended to do what it did?”.

SEE: Robot Law, book review: People will be the problem.

Markou feels that whether a robot can commit a crime or not depends on “Emergence.” Emergence is where a system does something new and likely good, but also unforeseeable, which is why it presents a problem for the law.

SEE: Robot kills worker on assembly line, raising concerns about human-robot collaboration.

It does not take much thought to envision the complexity of deciding whether a robot is guilty of committing a crime.

“At present, we are systematically incapable of guaranteeing human rights on a global scale. So I cannot help but wonder how ready we are for the prospect of robot crime given that we already struggle to contain that done by humans.” Also see.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : http://www.techrepublic.com/article/robot-crime-raises-thorny-legal-issues-that-need-addressing-now/
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Google to commercialize artificial intelligence to detect diseases

Below is a summary for the article : Google to commercialize artificial intelligence to detect diseases by The Investor

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With the recent advances in artificial intelligence technology, Google has been working to apply a form of high-level AI computing known as deep learning to the field of medicine and health care.

Though further developments are underway, Google said on April 27 that it has successfully developed new deep learning algorithms that can detect and diagnose diabetic retinopathy, an eye disease which can lead to blindness, as well as locate breast cancer.

Lily Peng, product manager of the medical imaging team at Google Research, shared how the US tech giant is using deep learning to train machines to analyze medical images and automatically detect pathological cues, be it swollen blood vessels in the eye or cancerous tumors, during a video conference with the South Korean media hosted by Google Korea.

On the medical front, Google has made significant progress on building an algorithm to read retinal scan images to discern signs of diabetic retinopathy, the fastest growing cause of preventable blindness in the world.

Google designed an AI algorithm to analyze retinal images and identify features of diabetic retinopathy.

As the algorithm has shown high accuracy, Google has now moved to build an interface and hardware into which doctors in India can input a retinal image and immediately receive a grade for diabetic retinopathy.

Another field spearheading Google’s deep learning push is cancer detection.

Google’s AI algorithm achieved a tumor localization score – how accurately it can locate the cancerous tumor – of 0.89, exceeding the score of 0.73 from a highly-trained human pathologist with unlimited time for examination.

Google’s algorithm located tumors with a sensitivity of 92 percent, but this was when set to allow eight false positive readings per slide.

The Google researcher said it will take some time before devices running on Google’s deep learning algorithms are commercialized for use in the medical sector, as it must secure sufficient clinical data proving their efficacy and accuracy before seeking regulatory approval.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : http://www.theinvestor.co.kr/view.php?ud=20170430000162
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How A.I. is slated to change journalism

Below is a summary for the article : How artificial intelligence is slated to change journalism by The Tech Portal

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Even as we speak, machines and artificial intelligence are becoming even more capable, doing things that used to be the sole domain of humans.

Would these systems really be able to breach all frontiers and cross the bridge of what makes us humans?

How do you differentiate between a robot and a human anyways.

At the risk of venturing into philosophy, one might say that creativity, the ability to come up with something brand new and original is what sets the human race apart from machines, and indeed, despite all the advances that we have made, can a machine create poetry? Can artificial intelligence produce a fresh story? Can a robot, be a journalist?

At the risk of venturing into philosophy, one might say that creativity, the ability to come up with something brand new and original is what sets the human race apart from machine.

Interestingly, the AI is taking the learning curve that would be taken by humans as well – unskilled jobs first, followed by skilled ones.

Notwithstanding what the report says, robots are already encroaching upon journalism as well and given a few years, we might find ourselves changing our minds about whether or not they can replace human journalists.

See, journalism is a job that requires skills like quick response time, creativity, the ability to sift through data and so on.

An AI would arguably be better than a human at most of them.

The thing with AI, and that sets them apart from all other machines and technologies in much the same way that humans are different from all other animals – is their ability to take up data, go through it and eventually get better.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://thetechportal.com/2017/04/30/artificial-intelligence-journalism/
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Siri Creator Says Artificial Intelligence Will Help You Remember Where You Left Your Keys

Below is a summary for the article : Siri Creator Says Artificial Intelligence Will Help You Remember Where You Left Your Keys by INC

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Humans are forgetful; we need calendar reminders, notepads, schedules, and assistants.

The co-creator of Siri, Apple’s digital assistant, says artificial intelligence technology could make forgetting an archaic problem of the past.

Tom Gruber, the AI guru and Siri co-creator, believes that AI technology could help improve human’s shortcomings.

During the TED 2017 conference on Tuesday, Gruber said it is inevitable that once artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence, the technology will be used to enhance human cognition and memory.

“What if you could have a memory that was as good as computer memory and is about your life?” Gruber asked the audience, as Recode reports.

“What if you could remember every person you ever met? How to pronounce their name? Their family details? Their favorite sports? The last conversation you had with them?”.

Gruber said he didn’t know what the form would be, but AI technology will help you store memories and experiences much as computers store data with instant recall.

Security and control over your memories, and everything else in your head would be incredibly important.

“We get to choose what is and is not recalled and retained,” said Gruber.

Never forgetting where you parked your car would be useful and studying for tests would be easy, but Gruber said he believes the technology could benefit people who suffer from Alzheimer’s and dementia.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://www.inc.com/will-yakowicz/tom-gruber-ai-could-improve-human-memory.html
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The next generation of Indian politicians could be robots

Below is a summary for the article : The next generation of Indian politicians could be robots by Quartz India

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What if the future president or prime minister or a chief minister in India is a robot? Would the robot be a better alternative to a corrupt, incompetent, rabble-rousing politician? Or how about an algorithm as a deputy finance minister? That way we can keep the much treasured “Human touch” alive and balance it with the power of data.

These questions are not to be taken literally but as the fourth Industrial Revolution, or second machine age, kicks in, big data, artificial intelligence, and 3D printing are going to fundamentally change the way we interact with each other by fusing the physical, biological, and digital worlds.

Even though it seems too futuristic and improbable, it’s worth considering what role big data and AI can play.

Techno-optimists give AI the status of God and techno-pessimists believe AI is Satan incarnate dressed in big data.

We need data to define public policy, shape public expectations, and enhance implementation efficiency.

India is a data-rich country but our data sets don’t interact with each other.

They are victims of sequential, bureaucratic, and clunky guidelines, largely a by-product of our colonial hangover, which act as bottlenecks for transforming data into actionable insights.

Cross-tabulating socio-economic data with demographic data could yield specific recommendations to bridge the policy-implementation chasm that has plagued every emerging country for decades.

Essentially, the quintessential argumentative Indian-both within and outside the parliament-needs to argue better, argue with data, demand with empathy, and deliver with purpose.

The last thing we want is to be caught off-guard, unprepared for this data revolution.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://qz.com/957604/the-next-generation-of-indian-politicians-could-be-robots/
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Law needs to be reshaped as AI and robotics alter employment

Below is a summary for the article : Law needs to be reshaped as AI and robotics alter employment by Global Legal Post

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The report suggests that legislators should consider a ‘made by humans’ label on products to ensure consumer choice and a ‘human quota’ in the workplace for certain jobs as well as greater cross border co-operation.

‘Jobs at all levels in society presently undertaken by humans are at risk of being reassigned to robots or AI, and the legislation once in place to protect the rights of human workers may be no longer fit for purpose,’ explained Gerlind Wisskirchen, IBA GEI Vice Chair for Multinationals and co-ordinator of the report.

Titled ‘Artificial Intelligence and Robotics and Their Impact on the Workplace’ the study focuses on potential future trends of AI and the likely impact intelligent systems will have on the labour market, the structures of companies, employees’ working time, remuneration and the working environment.

In addition to illustrating the thread and importance of law in relation to these areas, the GEI report assesses the law at different points in the automation cycle – from the developmental stage, when computerisation of an industry begins, to what workers may experience as AI becomes more prevalent, through to issues of responsibility when things go wrong.

In contrast to the US, European laws prevent autonomous driving on public roads.

The report also examines the issue of liability when failure does occur, concluding that: ‘The liability issues may become an insurmountable obstacle to the introduction of fully automated driving.

‘ Currently, in most cases driver responsibility is assumed, with the manufacturer liable only for product defects, and vehicle owners subject to special owner’s liability, particularly in European countries.

If a vehicle is fully automated, with a human driver no longer actively steering, the question arises as to whether damage can still be attributed to the driver or the owner of the car, or whether only the manufacturer of the system can be held liable.

The report determined that international liability standards with clear rules are needed.

States as lawmakers will have to be bold in decision, determining what jobs should be performed exclusively by humans, for example: caring for babies; perhaps introducing human quotas in different sectors; taxing companies where machines are used; and maybe introducing a ‘made by humans’ label for consumer choice.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : http://www.globallegalpost.com/global-view/law-needs-to-be-reshaped-as-ai-and-robotics-alter-employment-81001194/
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Why are we reluctant to trust robots?

Below is a summary for the article : Why are we reluctant to trust robots? by The Guardian

*Note: Image used belongs to Carl Court/AFP/Getty Images

An ethical AI could, in principle, be programmed to reflect the values and rules of an ideal moral agent.

Free from human limitations, such machines could even be said to make better moral decisions than us.

Why are we so reluctant to trust machines when it comes to making moral decisions? Psychology research provides a clue: we seem to have a fundamental mistrust of individuals who make moral decisions by calculating costs and benefits – like computers do.

These findings sit uncomfortably with a long tradition in philosophy that says calculating consequences is exactly the way which moral decisions should be made.

Instead, people’s moral intuitions tend to follow a set of moral rules in which certain actions are “Just wrong”, even if they produce good consequences.

Sticking to moral absolutes offered a financial advantage as well.

In an economic game designed to assess trust, we found that participants entrusted more money, and were more confident that they would get it back, when dealing with someone who refused to sacrifice people for the greater good compared to someone who made moral decisions based on consequences.

In these cases, the presence of decisional conflict served as a positive signal about the person, perhaps indicating that despite her decision, she felt the pull of moral rules.

In our fellow humans, we prefer an irrational commitment to certain rules no matter what the consequences, and we prefer those whose moral decisions are guided by social emotions like guilt and empathy.

Even if machines were able to perfectly mimic human moral judgments, we would know that the computer did not arrive at its judgments for the same reasons we would.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://www.theguardian.com/science/head-quarters/2017/apr/24/why-are-we-reluctant-to-trust-robots#img-1
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We Need To Talk About How Human Rights Will Work in the Age of A.I.

Below is a summary for the article : We Need To Talk About How Human Rights Will Work in the Age of AI by Futurism

*Note: Image used belongs to futurism.com

In response to advances in neuroscience and technologies that alter or read brain activity, some researchers are proposing a recognition of new human rights to mental integrity.

The idea of this kind of human right is a recognition that although brain-related technologies have the potential to transform our lives in many positive ways, they also have the potential to threaten personal freedom and privacy.

A large portion of brain-related technology owes its development to medical research and physical need; some diagnostic tools and treatments, for example, need to “Read” brain activity.

According to University of Basel neuroethicist Marcello Ienca and University of Zurich human rights lawyer Roberto Andorno, these advances in neuroscience and technology threaten personal freedom and privacy in new ways.

The pair argues that we are not yet doing enough to protect ourselves, and the human brain as the last refuge for human privacy.

They have therefore offered up four new human rights they hope can preserve that refuge: the rights to cognitive liberty, mental integrity, mental privacy, and psychological continuity.

If this human right is recognized, it could, for example, make it illegal for employers to use any kind of brain stimulation techniques on employees.

“The question we asked was whether our current human rights framework was well equipped to face this new trend in neurotechnology,” Ienca told The Guardian.

If you’re thinking the four human rights related to the integrity of the mind sound far-fetched, consider the breakthroughs that have come to fruition within the last few years alone.

Tesla’s Elon Musk is creating what may be the most ambitious BCI application yet: a third layer of the human mind that will merge human intelligence with AI. Brain implant technologies have also been exploding: a Harvard team is working on implants that are not rendered less effective by scar tissue, and may soon be using them to restore sight to the blind.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://futurism.com/we-need-to-talk-about-how-human-rights-will-work-in-the-age-of-ai/
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A.I. has to deal with its transparency problems

Below is a summary for the article : Artificial Intelligence has to deal with its transparency problems by The Next Web

*Note: Image used belongs to agsandrew / Shutterstock

Artificial Intelligence breakthroughs and developments entail new challenges and problems.

This can turn into a problem as we move forward and Artificial Intelligence becomes more prominent in our lives.

AI is not flawless, and does make mistakes, albeit at a lower rate than humans.

We humans make mistakes all the time, including fatal ones.

The same can’t be said of Artificial Intelligence.

So can we trust Artificial Intelligence to make decisions on its own? For non-critical tasks, such as advertising, games and Netflix suggestions, where mistakes are tolerable, we can.

The same goes for scenarios where human lives are at stake.

For the moment Artificial Intelligence will show its full potential in complementing human efforts.

In the meantime, firms and organization must do more to make Artificial Intelligence more transparent and understandable.

Eventually, we’ll achieve – for better or worse – Artificial General Intelligence, AI that is on par with the human brain.

 

To read more information, visit the original article : https://thenextweb.com/artificial-intelligence/2017/04/23/artificial-intelligence-has-to-deal-with-its-transparency-problems/#.tnw_WRdsNE6R
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